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孫少文伉儷人文中國研究所 (July 11, 2022)


LENGTH : 109 min.
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SUMMARY : 中國東北歷史上第一個文學社團「冰天詩社」成立於順治七年(1650),成員主要是被清廷流放至東北的漢人。詩社的召集人函可禪師(1612-1660),廣東博羅人,曹洞宗道獨法嗣,著有《千山詩集》二十卷,末卷收錄「冰天詩社」八十餘首。詩社的成員共 33 名。社員所使用的名號光怪陸離,社集詩作與其名號相互指涉,導致學界至今仍對超過一半以上的社員身份束手無策。

如果不以「冰天詩社」為群體,而將〈冰天社詩〉作為文本(text),透過克里斯蒂娃(Julia Kristeva)的互文性理論,指出社員的名號、籍貫與詩作,之所以不斷割裂前義、新生它義,目的不在新義舊義云何,而在於意義不斷轉換的過程。

而所以重視此一意義轉換過程,即是函可為了安頓身經易代、戰亂、道德抉擇的流人,權假文人結社的傳統,暫時給予彼等抒發離亂、忠義、人道主義困挫的時空。同時,招來神鬼走獸、有情物與無情物,使得詩社充斥著時空錯置的角色、浮動的詮釋意指。這是函可將「詩社作為禪堂,以唱酬作為問參」的禪法。揭櫫此者,既是Julia Kristeva互文性理論詮解古典詩歌的例證,也從中見得禪學與文學在易代之際交會的靈光。

This paper examines the Bing-Tian Poetry Society 冰天詩社, the first literary society in the history of Northeast China. Founded in 1650, the society was comprised mainly of Han people exiled to the northeastern borderlands by the Qing court. Having a total of 33 members who used pseudonyms as variegated as grotesque, the poetry society reflected the ethos that its members’ poems and pseudonyms were mutually referential.

In view of this conundrum, rather than regarding the poetry society as a community, this paper treats the Bing-Tian Poetry Anthology as a text. Applying Julia Kristeva’s theory of intertextuality, this paper argues that the key to understanding the constant mutation of the meanings of its members’ pseudonyms, places of ancestry, and works lies not so much in the differences between the old and new meanings as in the process of transition from one meaning system to another; to wit, the ceaseless change of meanings.

To accommodate the exiles, who not only experienced the turmoil of dynastic changes and the horrors of war but also confronted ethical dilemmas and physical sufferings, their fellow poet Hanke 函可 offered them a makeshift space where they could settle down and give vent to their feelings under the pretext of the literati tradition of association. In addition, summoning supernatural beings, animals, and sentient and non-sentient beings, this shelter-oriented poetry society was filled with anachronisms as well as inconstant interpretations and signifiers.  [Go to the full record in the library's catalogue]

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